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Tuesday, July 21, 2020 | History

2 edition of Cell death in insulin-containing cells found in the catalog.

Cell death in insulin-containing cells

Neil Beeharry

Cell death in insulin-containing cells

induction and prevention.

by Neil Beeharry

  • 388 Want to read
  • 24 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Brighton, Department of Pharmacy.

ContributionsUniversity of Brighton. Department of Pharmacy.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16157113M

IFNα induced both PDL1 mRNA and protein expression in EndoC-βH1 cells (Figs. 2A and C) and human islet cells (Figs. 2B and D), and led to a fold increase in cell surface expression of PDL1 in EndoC-βH1 cells, as shown by flow cytometry (Figs. 2E and F).Cited by: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) has become one of the most investigated targets for cancer immunotherapy. Most research has centered on inhibiting PD-1 on T cells, but there is increased interest in understanding the role of PD-1 on NK cells.

Cells were resuspended in mTeSR1 with the ROCK‐specific inhibitor Y (Tocris) (10 μmol/L) and plated at varying cell densities. On day 0, when the cells reached 50–60% confluency, the medium was aspirated and the cells were incubated in RPMI/B27 (Life Technologies) without insulin containing the GSK inhibitor CHIR (10 μmol/L).Cited by: 2. how it may participate in its own demise in type 1 diabetes. The review also illustrates the challenges faced by investigators wishing to genetically engineer non- cells for cellular therapy of type 1 diabetes or wanting to introduce specific genes into the beta cell population to afford it greater protection from autoimmune attack.

  Growing evidence that beta cell destruction at diagnosis may only be partial in many patients is raising questions about the dynamics of the autoimmune process; the persistence of beta cells, insulin secretion, and disease activity for years after diagnosis point at the chronicity of T1D and suggest that therapeutic intervention to halt the. The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is a potent acid extruder that participates in the extrusion of the intracellular acid. Here, we showed for the first time, Hv1 is highly expressed in mouse and human pancreatic islet β-cells, as well as β-cell lines. Imaging studies demonstrated that Hv1 resides in insulin-containing granules in β-cells.


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Cell death in insulin-containing cells by Neil Beeharry Download PDF EPUB FB2

In recent work, we have indicated how the insulin-containing B cell can help determine the final outcome of a possible cytotoxic interaction (30, 32). Several sequences in the process of cell death permit the target cell to actively intervene, in the sense either of promoting or of counteracting the damaging effects (32).

However, the ability. Specifically, in the zebrafish principal islet insulin-expressing cells are the earliest endocrine cell type detected, followed by glucagon-expressing cells; this is also the order of cell type appearance found in human development (reviewed by Jennings, Berry, Strutt, Gerrard, & Hanley, ).

By contrast, in the mouse this pattern is reversed. The former involves direct recognition of the beta-cell antigens by cytotoxic T-cells, while the latter is caused by exposure of soluble mediators secreted by T-cells that induce beta-cell death (Cnop, M.

et al.Mathis, D. et al. ) such as cytokines, perforin or Fas/Fas ligand interactions, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species Cited by: 6. Abstract. Inin a letter to the editor of Lancet, Cox et al 1 reported a study of the pancreas in 25 so-called cot deaths, infants who had died of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Those authors claimed that 9 of the 25 (36%) had islet cell hyperplasia and by: 1. According to the literature, mechanisms of pancreatic β-cell plasticity are associated with the processes of cell proliferation, cell death, neogenesis, and changes in cell volume [4, 5, 6].

Recent work in rodents has indicated a previously unappreciated proliferative capacity of : Alexandra E. Proshchina, Yuliya S. Krivova, Larisa E. Gurevich, Valeriy M. Barabanov, Dmitriy A. Otl.

Insulin plays a central role in the regulation of human metabolism. The hormone is a residue anabolic protein that is secreted by the β-cells in the Islets of Langerhans.

Containing two chains (A and B) connected by disulfide bonds, the mature hormone is the post-translational product of a single-chain precursor, designated proinsulin. Extensive studies of the three-dimensional Cited by:   Hyperexpression of class I MHC by all the endocrine cells in many insulin‐containing islets is a well recognized phenomenon, characteristic of the disease.

It has been argued that this is an earlier event than insulitis within a given islet and appears to be due to secretion of interferon α by β cells within that islet. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Cell Therapy for Diabetes. of up to 12 % insulin-containing cells. sion of marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells for cell therapy.

Cell Transplant HCV infection inhibits cell proliferation and induces death of MIN6 cells with apoptotic characteristics, including cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, decreased.

Immunocytochemical staining indicated that insulin-containing cells butmore» Peak uptake of 1,25(/sup 3/H) dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ was calculated to be pmol/mg DNA, with no significant difference in nuclear accumulation between islets cells from neonatal and adult rats or between islets in vivo and isolated islets in vitro.

Since the mechanism of autoimmune destruction by effector cells may be mediated by CD4+ cells, and thus indirect, there is also the question of whether the b-cell is uniquely susceptible to oxygen and nitrogen free radicals or cytokine mediators of cell death which may account for the fact that other islet cells exposed to same molecules.

IDENTIFICATION OF AUTOANTIGENS IN TYPE 1 DIABETES. The pancreatic β cell is ranked among the most specialized cells in the human body. In addition to the vital production, storage, and secretion of insulin, to which end a range of β-cell-specific proteases act in concert, these cells are also capable of sensing and responding to changes in by: Insulin, a hormone produced by pancreatic β-cells, has a primary function of maintaining glucose homeostasis.

Deficiencies in β-cell insulin secretion result in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, metabolic disorders characterized by high levels of blood glucose.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by the presence of peripheral insulin resistance in tissues Author: Nadia Rachdaoui. Type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes in humans, is characterized by impaired insulin secretion paralleled by a progressive decline in β-cell function and chronic insulin resistance.

Several authors have showed that in type 2 diabetes there is a reduction of islet and/ or insulin-containing cell mass or volume. Regulation of the β-cell mass appears to involve a.

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity. DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34/Ppp1r15a), originally isolated from UV Cited by: Fatty acid (FA)-stimulated insulin secretion (FASIS) is reviewed here in contrast to type 2 diabetes etiology, resulting from FA overload, oxidative stress, intermediate hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, all converging into insulin resistance.

Focusing on pancreatic islet β-cells, we compare the physiological FA roles with the pathological by: • Lipotoxicity - excessive FFAs cause dysfunction and death of beta-cells.

• Glucotoxicity - chronically elevated plasma glucose will cause structural and functional damage to beta-cells. • Reduced levels of incretins which stimulate the release of insulin.

• Amyloid deposition in pancreatic islets. Programmed β-cell death plays an important role in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but analysis of candidate survival factors has yielded a few hormones and growth factors exhibiting modest β-cell protection against various stresses.

Most of what is known about the mechanisms of β-cell death comes from single time-point, single parameter measurements of bulk populations of Author: Yu Hsuan Carol Yang. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 or 31 amino acid long peptide hormone deriving from the tissue-specific posttranslational processing of the proglucagon peptide.

It is produced and secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells and certain neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract in the brainstem upon food consumption.

The initial product GLP-1 (1–37) is. Islets of 1 d post-SZ mice contained 1–2 IN + cells. A and B, Islet of 1 d post-SZ/ mice examined by confocal microscopy. A, Insulin staining visualized with a Alexa-fluor goat antiguinea pig (red fluorescence) and a Topro-Cy5 dye that labels DNA (blue fluorescence).Note the presence of one IN + cell in the periphery (arrow) and red-stained cell Cited by:.

This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met protein is overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types and plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis.

Check for active clinical trials using this agent.Diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 are characterized by absolute versus relative lack of insulin‐producing β cells, respectively. Reconstitution of a functional β‐cell mass byCited by: Glyburide is a sulfonamide urea derivative with antihyperglycemic activity that can potentially be used to decrease cerebral edema.

Upon administration, glyburide binds to and blocks the sulfonylurea receptor type 1 (SUR1) subunit of the ATP-sensitive inwardly-rectifying potassium (K()) channels on the membranes of pancreatic beta prevents the inward current .